Tuesday, July 14, 2009

U.S. Emergency Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Response Plan Summary and BSE Red Book Date: February 14, 2000 at 8:56 am PST

U.S. Emergency Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Response Plan Summary and BSE Red Book Date: February 14, 2000 at 8:56 am PST

WHERE did we go wrong $$$

Prelimanary Notification

The director of NVSL is responsible for immediately notifying the APHIS, Veterinary Services (VS) deputy administrator when tests suggest a presumptive diagnosis of BSE. Once NVSL has made a presumptive diagnosis of BSE, APHIS and FSIS field activities will also be initiated. APHIS will receive notification (either confirming or not confirming NVSL's diagnosis) from the United Kingdom anywhere between 24 and 96 hours


State-Federal Team Responds to Texas BSE Case

JUNE 30, 2005

(please note 7+ month delay in final confirmation so the BSE MRR policy could be set in stone first. $$$...tss)




The U.S. Department of Agriculture confirmed June 29 that genetic testing had verified bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) in a 12-year-old cow that was born and raised in a Texas beef cattle herd.

Subsequent epidemiological investigations resulted in the culling and testing of 67 adult animals from the index herd. Bio-Rad tests for BSE were conducted on all 67 animals by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa. All tests were negative.

On July 12, Texas officials lifted the quarantine on the source herd. At press time, USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service was tracing animals of the same age that had left the ranch.


The BSE-positive animal was a Brahman-cross cow born and raised in a single Texas herd. The location of the ranch was not disclosed.

On Nov. 11, 2004, the 12-year-old cow was taken to a Texas auction market. Because of its condition, the cow was sent to Champion Pet Foods in Waco, Texas. The company produces several blends of dog food, primarily for the greyhound industry.

On Nov. 15, the animal arrived dead at Champion. Under procedures established by USDA's intensive surveillance program, a sample was sent to the USDA-approved Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Testing Laboratory (TVMDL) at Texas A&M University.

Between June 1, 2004, and June 1, 2005, TVMDL tested nearly 34,000 samples from Texas, New Mexico, Arkansas and Louisiana. They tested the sample from Champion on Nov. 19 using a Bio-Rad ELISA rapid test for BSE. Initial results were inconclusive.

Because of the inconclusive results, a representative from USDA took the entire carcass to TVMDL where it was incinerated. USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) began tracing the animal and herd.

The sample was then sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory for further testing. Two Immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests were conducted and both were negative for BSE. At that point APHIS stopped their trace.

USDA scientists also ran an additional, experimental IHC "rapid" tissue fixation test for academic purposes. This test has not been approved internationally.

Some abnormalities were noted in the experimental test, but because the two approved tests came back negative, the results were not reported beyond the laboratory.

Monitoring by OIG

USDA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) has been monitoring implementation of the BSE expanded surveillance program and evaluating the following:

* Effectiveness of the surveillance program;

* Performance of BSE laboratories in complying with policies and procedures for conducting tests and reporting results;

* Enforcement of the ban on specified risk materials in meat products;

* Controls to prevent central nervous system tissue in advanced meat recovery products;

* Ante mortem condemnation procedures; and

* Procedures for obtaining brain tissue samples from condemned cattle.

While reviewing voluminous records, OIG auditors noticed conflicting test results on one sample-rapid inconclusive, IHC negative, experimental reactive.

Sample retested

At the recommendation of the Inspector General, the sample was retested during the week of June 5 with a second confirmatory test, the Western Blot. The results were reactive.

USDA scientists then conducted an additional IHC confirmatory test, using different antibodies from the November 2004 test. On Friday, June 10, Secretary of Agriculture Mike Johanns publicly announced the results as a "weak positive."

On June 16 an official with USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratory hand-carried samples for further testing to the Veterinary Laboratory Agency (VLA) in Weybridge, England. Since 1991, the VLA has been a BSE reference laboratory for the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).

Experts from the Weybridge lab confirmed the accuracy of the results of USDA's November confirmatory IHC test, concurring that the case could not have been confirmed on the basis of this sample. They also examined the November experimental IHC test and interpreted the results to be positive.

Weybridge also conducted additional tests, including IHC, OIE-prescribed Western Blot, NaTTA Western Blot and Prionics Western Blot tests.

To better understand the conflicting results, USDA also conducted Bio-Rad and IDEXX rapid screening tests, IHC and OIE-prescribed Western Blot. USDA also used DNA sequencing to determine the prion protein gene sequence of the animal.


Texas even had a 'secret' test that showed that mad cow positive; experimental IHC test results, because the test was not a validated procedure, and because the two approved IHC tests came back negative, the results were not considered to be of regulatory significance and therefore were not reported beyond the laboratory. . A Western blot test conducted the week of June 5, 2005, returned positive for BSE.


48 hr BSE confirmation turnaround took 7+ months to confirm this case, so the BSE MRR policy could be put into place. ...TSS

-------- Original Message --------

Subject: re-USDA's surveillance plan for BSE aka mad cow disease

Date: Mon, 02 May 2005 16:59:07 -0500

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

To: mhtml:%7B33B38F65-8D2E-434D-8F9B-8BDCD77D3066%7Dmid://00000265/!x-usc:mailto:paffairs@oig.hhs.gov, mhtml:%7B33B38F65-8D2E-434D-8F9B-8BDCD77D3066%7Dmid://00000265/!x-usc:mailto:HHSTips@oig.hhs.gov, mhtml:%7B33B38F65-8D2E-434D-8F9B-8BDCD77D3066%7Dmid://00000265/!x-usc:mailto:contactOIG@hhsc.state.tx.us

Greetings Honorable Paul Feeney, Keith Arnold, and William Busbyet al at OIG, ...............


There will be several more emails of my research to follow. I respectfully request a full inquiry into the cover-up of TSEs in the United States of America over the past 30 years. I would be happy to testify...

Thank you, I am sincerely, Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 xxx xxx xxxx

snip... see full text ;


From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. (216-119-138-126.ipset18.wt.net)
Subject: U.S. Emergency Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Response Plan Summary
Date: February 14, 2000 at 8:56 am PST

Subject: U.S. Emergency Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Response Plan Summary Date: Tue, 4 May 1999 18:25:12 -0500 From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy To: mhtml:%7B33B38F65-8D2E-434D-8F9B-8BDCD77D3066%7Dmid://00000265/!x-usc:mailto:BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de

From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr., Bacliff, Texas......

I thought it might be interesting for those of you who have not seen this plan, to do so. So here it is...........

The mission of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to enhance the quality of life for the American people by supporting production agriculture; ensuring a safe, affordable, nutritious, and accessible food supply; caring for agricultural, forest, and range lands; supporting sound development of rural communities; providing economic opportunities for farm and rural residents; expanding global markets for agricultural and forest products and services; and working to reduce hunger in America and throughout the world.

USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is responsible for ensuring the health and care of animals and plants. APHIS improves agricultural productivity and competitiveness and contributes to the national economy and the public health. USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for protecting the Nation's meat and poultry supply--making sure it is safe, wholesome, unadulterated, and properly labeled and packaged. These two agencies have come together to lead USDA's actions in the prevention, monitoring, and control of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the U.S. livestock and food supply.

The public knows BSE as "MAD COW DISEASE", a disease linked to human cases of new-variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD). USDA knows BSE as the disease that devastated the livestock industry in the United Kingdom and shattered consumer confidence in Europe. BSE has affected international trade and all aspects of the animal and public health communities. It has called even greater attention to the U.S. Government's accountability for a safe food supply.

No case of BSE has ever been found in the United States. Since 1989, USDA has had a number of stringent safeguards in place to prevent BSE from entering the country. USDA conducts an ongoing, comprehensive interagency surveillance program for BSE. This surveillance program allows USDA to monitor actively for BSE to ensure immediate detection in the event that BSE were to be introduced into the United States. Immediate detection allows for swift response. As an emergency preparedness measure, USDA has developed this BSE Response Plan to be initiated in the event that a case of BSE is diagnosed in the United States. The Plan details comprehensive instructions for USDA staff as to who is to do what, when, where, and how in the event that BSE were to be diagnosed in the United States.


APHIS is responsible for being prepared for potential FOREIGN animal disease outbreaks. The purpose of such preparation is to provide a step-by-step plan of action in the event that a FOREIGN animal disease, such as BSE, is detected in the United States. These plans, often referred to as "RED BOOKS", provide guidance by outlining certain actions that should take place, such as identification of a suspect animal, laboratory confirmation, epidemiologic investigation, and animal and herd disposition activities. Copies of Red Books for specific FOREIGN animal diseases are distributed to agency headquarters and each regional and field office to have in preparation for a disease outbreak.

In 1990, APHIS developed a plan to respond to a confirmation of BSE in the United States. In August 1996, a joint APHIS-FSIS working group updated the BSE Red Book in accordance with current science and research surrounding BSE and the related family of disease called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE's). The BSE Red Book is officially entitled BSE EMERGENCY DISEASE GUIDELINES.

The APHIS-FSIS working group determined that the BSE Red Book, which detailed laboratory and field activities to be carried out in an emergency, needed another component. After the March 1996 announcement by the United Kingdom that BSE was linked to nvCJD, it became apparent to the working group that the Plan needed to address communication issues, both internally within USDA and the Federal Government and externally to the public at large. A confirmed case of BSE would affect such a vast array of stakeholders-consumers, cattle producers, the food animal industry, international trading partners, animal and public health communities, media, and others. Having clear, accurate information readily available would build trust and credibility and facilitate any response measures needed. There needed to be a notification plan. Who was responsible for notifying who, what, when, and how? The plan needed to identify clear channels of communication as to ensure immediate collection and dissemination of accurate information.

The joint APHIS--FSIS working group became formally known as the BSE Response Team and is responsible for the development of this BSE Response Response Plan. BSE Response Team members represent a mix of backgrounds and expertise, including veterinary medicine, food safety, public health, epidemiology, pathology, international trade, and public affairs. The Team is coordinatied by two Team Leaders, one each from APHIS and FSIS, who serve as liaisons and technical advisors to their respective agencies on regulations and policies regarding BSE. Over the past 2 years, the BSE Response Plan has been reviewed, edited, revised, and approved by officials at all levels of APHIS, FSIS, and USDA. The Plan has also been shared with other Government agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other stakeholders, such as the Animal Ag Coalition. The BSE Response Team monitors and assesses all ongoing events and research findings regarding TSE's. The Team leaders are responsible for ensuring that prevention and diagnostic measures are continually revised and adjusted as new information and knowledge become available.

NOTIFICATION: Roles and Responsibilities


As part of USDA's surveillance program for BSE in the United States, veterinary pathologists and field investigators from APHIS and FSIS have received training from British counterparts in diagnosing BSE. FSIS inspects cattle before they go to slaughter; these inspection procedures include identifying animals with central nervous system conditions. Animals with such conditions are considered suspect for BSE, prohibited from slaughter, and referred to APHIS for examination as explained below.

Pathologists at APHIS National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) histopathologically examine the brains from these condemned animals. In addition, samples are tested using a technique called immunohistochemistry, which tests for the presence of the protease-resistant prion protein (a marker for BSE). NVSL also examines samples from neurologically ill cattle and nonambulatory ("DOWNER") cattle identified on the farm or at slaughter and from rabies-negative cattle submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories and teaching hospitals.


Because of their responsibility for examining condemned or BSE-suspect animals, NVSL is the organization responsible for activating the notification and BSE response process. It is NVSL that will begin the activation of the BSE Response Plan. From the time a sample is submitted, it takes 14 to 18 days to confirm a diagnosis of BSE In the first 10 to 13 days, pathologists at NVSL have enough information to either rule out BSE or determine the need for additional tests. If it is determined that there is no evidence of BSE, the results are added to the more than 7,500 others that have also been negative. NVSL maintains these data.

If additional tests do suggest a presumptive diagnosis of BSE, an NVSL pathologist will hand carry the sample to the United Kingdom for confirmation. It is at this critical point, when NVSL suggests a diagnosis of BSE and is preparing to send the sample to the United Kingdom, that this BSE Response Plan is initiated. The Plan begins the preliminary notification from NVSL to APHIS.

Prelimanary Notification

The director of NVSL is responsible for immediately notifying the APHIS, Veterinary Services (VS) deputy administrator when tests suggest a presumptive diagnosis of BSE.

Once NVSL has made a presumptive diagnosis of BSE, APHIS and FSIS field activities will also be initiated. APHIS will receive notification (either confirming or not confirming NVSL's diagnosis) from the United Kingdom anywhere between 24 and 96 hours. (The international animal health community has recognized the United Kingdom's Central Veterinary Laboratory {CVL} as the world's reference laboratory for diagnosing BSE. Other countries, including Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Switzerland, have all sent samples to this lab to confirm their first case of BSE).


NVSL will provide all laboratory support in carrying out this BSE Response Plan and serve as the liaison with CVL. NVSL will prepare its facility to receive and process additional samples from the suspect animal's progeny or herdmates or other suspects. NVSL will also coordinate any other assistance from State or university diagnostic laboratories if necessary.


Veterinary Services is the animal health arm of APHIS and the program responsible for carrying out field actions in response to BSE. Upon notifiction of a presumptive diagnosis from NVSL, the APHIS, VS deputy administrator immediately notifies the FSIS, Office of Public Health and Science (OPHS) deputy administrator. APHIS and FSIS deputy administrators will alert the BSE Response Team and activate the Response Plan. The VS deputy administrator serves as the liaison between the BSE Response Team and the APHIS administrator. The APHIS, VS deputy administrator notifies the APHIS administrator and the VS regional director of the State from which the suspect animal originated.

APHIS Administrator

The APHIS Administrator immediately notifies the USDA Assistant Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs. This immediate notification will be followed by an official informational memorandum from the APHIS Administrator, through the Assistant Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs, to the Secretary of Agriculture. This memorandum will be prepared by the BSE Response Team; a draft is maintained by the Team leaders in the reserved section of their plans. The APHIS Administrator is responsible for securing indemnity funds for depopulation of the herd if CVL confirms NVSL's diagnosis.

Assistant Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs

The Assistant Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs, in conjuction with the Undersecretary for Food Safety, is responsible for notifying the Secretary. The Assistant Secretary serves as the liaison between APHIS and Department-level officials.

Secretary of Agriculture

The Secretary has the authority to declare a Federal EMERGENCY if appropriate and approve funding as necessary. Information will be provided to the Secretary up the chain of command from the BSE Response Team.

FSIS, OPHS Deputy Administrator

The OPHS Deputy Administrator, together with the APHIS, VS Deputy Administrator, alert the BSE Response Team leaders and instruct them to assemble the BSE Response Team and activate the Plan. The OPHS Deputy Administrator serves as the liaison between the BSE Response Team and the FSIS Administrator. The OPHS Deputy Administrator is responsible for notifying the FSIS regional director in charge of the State from which the suspect animal originated.

FSIS Deputy Administrator

The FSIS Deputy Administrator is responsible for notifying the Undersecretary for Food Safety.

Undersecretary for Food Safety

The Undersecretary for Food Safety, in conjuction with the Assistant Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs, notifies the Secretary of Agriculture.

APHIS, VS, Regional Director

The APHIS, VS regional director in charge of the State from which the suspect animal originated notifies the VS Area Veterinarian-in-Charge (AVIC) for that State. The regional director is the liaison between VS field staff and the VS Deputy Administrator at headquarters. In addition, the regional director shares all information with the BSE Response Team.


The VS AVIC, in cooperation with State animal health authorities, is responsible for coordination the field activities surrounding the emergency response to BSE. The AVIC assembles the local VS staff to initiate activities outlined in the BSE Red Book including tracing the progeny and herdmates of the suspect animal and beginning an epidemiologic investigation. The VS AVIC coordinates with the State Veterinarian to quarantine the suspect animal's herd of origin. The State has the authority to order a routine quarantine for a neurological disease. The BSE Response Team surveyed every State to determine if they would utilize this authority in the event that NVSL identifies a presumptive diagnosis of BSE. All States responded that they would issue a quarantine.

BSE Response Team

The BSE Response Team leaders will notify each team member and instruct them to assemble in the Situation Room at APHIS headquarters in Riverdale, MD. The Team leaders are responsible for ensuring that all of the Team's duties are fulfilled. It is their responsibility to ensure that the technical information and expert recommendations reach the decisionmakers in a timely fashion. Together with VS Emergency Programs staff, the Team leaders will obtain APHIS, VS administrative support staff in Riverdale, MD, to ready the room for use as BSE headquarters. The Team will begin gathering and assembling information from APHIS and FSIS region and field staff. The Team will pull the draft documents from the third section in the Team leaders manuals and begin filling in current information as it becomes available.

Public Notification

Should NVSL receive notice from CVL confirming a case of BSE, the next level of notification is activated. Each player will follow the same notification protocol as described above for preliminary notification to confirm the diagnosis of a case of BSE.

BSE Response Team

The BSE Response Team will complete the informational memorandum for the Secretary. The Team will prepare the letter to the Office of International Epizootics (OIE), the international animal health organization, for signature by the APHIS, VS Deputy Administrator. OIE requires that all countries submit official notification within 24 hours of confirming a diagnosis of BSE.

The BSE Response Team and the office of the APHIS, VS Deputy Administrator would coordinate a teleconference to inform all APHIS regional directors and AVIC'S.

The BSE Response Team and the office of the FSIS, OPHS Deputy Administrator would coordinate a teleconference to inform all regional and field FSIS offices.

The BSE Response Team would coordinate a teleconference to notify other Federal agencies.

The BSE Response Team would coordinate a teleconference to notify key industry/consumer representatives.

The BSE Response Team and APHIS International Services would notify foreign embassies.

The BSE Response Team would establish a toll-free 800 telephone line for industry representatives, reporters, and the public.

The BSE Response Team would coordinate with APHIS Legislative and Public Affairs and USDA office of Communications to issue a press release the day the diagnosis is confirmed. The press release would announce a press conference to be held the morning after the diagnosis is confirmed......


From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. (216-119-138-129.ipset18.wt.net)
Subject: Emergency Operations...BSE Red Book Date: March 13, 2000 at 1:30 pm PST

BSE Red Book 2.1-35

7.0 Emergency Operations

The section below would be implemented only after a first case of BSE is confirmed in the United States.

7.1 READEO Activation

READEO activation will rarely be necessary for BSE outbreaks. Different from most other foreign animal diseases and infectious diseases, BSE is not a rapidly spreading, acute epizootic; is not thought to be transmitted horizontally between animals within a herd, has an extremely long incubation period, and usually affects only isolated single animals or, at most, a few animals within herds. Because BSE does not spread rapidly, the workload to investigate and manage most outbreaks should not normally exceed the capability of existing local field personnel. READEO activation should be considered only if the particular circumstances of a BSE outbreak warrant. If field personnel feel they are unable to manage a BSE outbreak, they should communicate this to their Regional Director and VS, Emergency Program staff, who will evaluate the need for READEO activation.

7.2 READEO Organization

If READEO is activated, a reference should be made to the revised READEO Manual for further guidance on READEO organization and operations.

7.2.1 Office of the Director

When an animal disease emergency exists, the Task Force Directors are responsible for the READEO activities. The directors immediately move to the location of the outbreak and setup the READEO headquarters. Work is coordinated with State officials of the States involved in the outbreak. State Director--(Note: This is the new designation for the Assistant Director.) Each READEO may have one or more State Directors since each State where the disease outbreak is found will be represented in the READEO by State officials designated by the State Veterinarian. Emergency Program Officer--This individual, designated by the Chief Staff Veterinarian of VS, Emergency Programs, provides liaison between the READEO and the Emergency Programs at APHIS headquarters. Public Affairs Officer--The Public Affairs Officer plans, develops, supervises, and maintains information activities for the READEO. Legal--The Legal Advisor provides counsel and assistance to the READEO. Military--The U.S. Armed Forces Command will designate a senior line officer to be the Military Support Officer on the staff of the READEO Task Force Directon The individual is assigned to be the liaison between the Depart-

October 1998

BSE Red Book 2.1-36

ment of Defense and VS, Emergency Programs,and to coordinate needed military assistance during eradication of an FAD outbreak. Meat and Poultry Inspection Operations--The Meat and Poultry Inspection Operations, Food Safety and Inspection Service, will designate personnel to report to the READEO Task Director and to provide liaison between the Task Force and the Meat and Poultry Inspection Operations. Laboratory Coordination--The Laboratory Coordination Officer will advise the READE(3 Director concerning laboratory capabilities and appropriate laboratory examinations to be conducted to provide needed results as rapidly as possible. This individual will assist with interpretation of results.

7.2.2 Administration The Administrative Officer assigned to the READEO will direct and coordinate all facets of general administrative functions. Refer to the revised READEO Manual for a detailed description of the organization and responsibilities.

7.2.3 Field Operations The Field Operations Officer will direct line operations and supervise field personnel in a READEO. Disease investigation, field epidemiology, disease security and personnel security, animal movement control and quarantine enforcement, appraisals of animals and materials, depopulation and disposal, and cleaning and disinfection are among this person's responsibilities.

7.2.4 Technical Support Staff support consists of a technically competent staff designed to act as a resource for the READEO Task Force. Personnel may include but are not limited to individuals who have expertise in the following areas: animal welfare, data systems, disease reporting, economics, environmental impact, epidemiology, evaluation, orientation and training, risk analysis, and wildlife. The staff communicates the needs of the Field Epidemiology Delivery System (FEDS) to the READEO Director as required to maintain an efficient, accurate, up-to-date FEDS. Animal Welfare---Animal Welfare Officers must be knowledgeable about current Federal and State animal welfare regulations, humane methods of animal depopulation, and socioeconomic concerns related to animal welfare issues. They advise the technical support staff and field operations concerning current procedures and accepted methods for use in the humane depopulation of livestock and poultry. Wildlife-- Wildlife Officers participate with the Director and other officials of the READEO to establish and carry out wildlife policies and objectives for the emergency animal disease operation. Through familiarity with the topography, wildlife density, susceptible wildlife species, and movements of susceptible wildlife, the Wildlife Officers can review maps and make recommendations concerning areas to be included in the quarantined high-risk and buffer zones. These officers maintain contact with local, State, and Federal wildlife enforcement officers and wildlife biologists. They develop strategies for conducting surveys of susceptible wi!dlife in the outbreak

October 1998

BSE Red Book 2.1-37

area to determine the incidence of the disease. They direct and coordinate the vaccination and depopulation of wild animals as necessary to eliminate the disease.

7.3 Supplies and Equipment During an outbreak of BSE, supplies and equipment should be obtained through normal procurement procedures. If a READEO is activated, supplies and equipment should be ordered through the READEO Procurement and Supply Officer.

7.3.1 General Field Supplies Guidelines Refer to APHIS Directive 326.1, 10/10/77 and 221.1, 1/29/74.

7.4 Personnel Responsibilities During a BSE outbreak, field personnel should follow instructions issued through the normal chain of command. If a READEO is activated, personnel should refer to the revised READEO Manual for detailed descriptions of individual responsibilities.

7.4.1 Personnel Personnel assigned to the READEO Task Force are individually accountable for equipment and supplies checked out to them. They should order replacement equipment and supplies or return equipment for repairs through the READEO Procurement and Supply Officer. All damages or losses to equipment or vehicles should be reported immediately to the READEO Administrative Officer, and the required forms should be completed and submitted promptly.

7.4.2 Travel Employees of the READEO Task Force are responsible for recording and preparing all travel-related documents. Claims for travel, lodging, per diem, and incidental expenses should be submitted to the READEO Administrative Officer for processing.

7.4.3 Vehicles Employees of the READEO Task Force are responsible for operating, cleaning, and performing routine maintenance of assigned vehicles. They also are responsible for recording mileage, expenses, and services. Required reports are to be submitted to the READEO Vehicle Officer.

7.4. 4 Clothing Employees of the READEO Task Force are issued protective clothing to wear when entering a premises where BSE has been diagnosed or is suspected. Clean clothing should be worn on each premises. Employees are responsible for laundering the clothing before reusing it.

October 1998

BSE Red Book 2.1-38

In a large task-foree operation, arrangements may be made for a commercial laundry service to handle the clothing. If it is possible and practical, all clothing should be labeled to identify the employees to whom it is assigned.

7.4.5 Miscellaneous Responsibilities Employees are responsible for conducting their assigned tasks in a professional manner. Complaints concerning task force employees should be directed to the READEO Director for resolution or appropriate action.

All animals, products, and materials to be destroyed because of BSE should be appraised according to 9 CFR 53.3 and appropriate State regulations.

7.5.1 Appraisal Teams Appraisals must represent the interests of the owner, the State, and the Federal Government and be consistent with fair market values. If State authorities approve, State and Federal interests may be represented by a VS employee alone. Owners may, at their discretion and expense, employ a professional appraiser to advise them or to act as their agent. Either the owner or the owner's agent must be present at appraisals. No animals may be destroyed until after the appraisal forms are signed by the owner or the owner's agent. Appraisers should be certain that the owner or the owner's agent is aware of the indemnity form's clause concerning liens and mortgages.

When the number of animals to be destroyed is small, and the total value of animals, products, and materiais is low, APHIS field personnel may negotiate the appraised value with the animal's owner without assistance from a professional appraiser. The appraised value of a BSE suspect should be the slaughter value of the animal, taking into account any existing defects or diseases that would affect the slaughter value but ignoring those signs that caused the animal to be classified as a BSE suspect. If field personnel are in doubt concerning the need to use a professional appraiser, they should consult their supervisor or VS, Emergency Programs staff.

If a determination is made that healthy progeny, ova, semen, or embryos must be destroyed, they should be appraised at 100 percent of replacement value.

Feeds or feed ingredients located on suspect farms will rarely need to be destroyed. If a determination is made that feeds or feed ingredients must be destroyed (for example, to comply with a policy decision to remove all rendered products from animal feeds), then these materials should be appraised and indemn'ff~ed according to 9 CFR 53.3.

October 1998

BSE Red Book 2.1-39

7.6 Depopulation Procedures

7.6.1 Factors and Considerations If the owner is agreeable, a humane method of euthanasia of BSE suspects will be necessary to facilitate the accurate diagnosis of the disease problem, to ensure that the suspect animal is not slaughtered or rendered, and to terminate the animal's suffering. Under no circumstances may BSE suspects be sent fo slaughhter or rendering. Notify FDA, CVM if you suspect that the carcass of a BSE-confirmed animal has moved to rendering or animal feed manufacturing. The VS, Emergency Programs staff, Riverdale, MD, must authorize the use of euthanasia, depopulation, and indemnity payments for READEO operations.

7.6.2 Humane Euthanasia Methods Only experienced veterinarians should perform euthanasia because there are inherent dangers. Precautions should be taken to prevent accidents. Owners should be given a complete explanation of what to expect, and only humane euthanasia methods should be used. Euthanasia should be performed away from public view, and, if possible, the owner should not be present. Euthanized animals must be checked to confirm death. (See VS Memo 583.1, 1992.) Mechanical (Firearms)--Because the only acceptable method for euthanizing an animal by using firearms is to shoot it in the head, and because the animal's brain must be preserved to diagnose BSE, firearms are not an acceptable euthanasia method. Chemicals(Toxic Gas or Lethal Injection)--Follow guidelines established by the American Veterinary Medical Association. When using a regulated controlled substance (e.g., barbiturates), control and administration of the euthanasia agent must be given by a veterinarian having a Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) number issued by the U.S. Treasury. Control and administration of chemical substances for euthanasia must be authorized by the AVIC unless directed by the VS Deputy Administrator. (See VS Memorandum 583.1, 1992.)

7.6.3 Supervision of Depopulation Field personnel should never perform depopulation or euthanasia without explicit permission from their supervisor or, if appropriate, the READEO Humane and Disposal Officer. (Refer to the revised READEC) Manual.)

7. 6.4 Permits for Movement All BSE suspects may be moved under permit to facilitate medical treatment, euthanasia, necropsy examination, or carcass disposal. Permitted movement will be according to the quarantine restrictions and will be administered by the State or Federal officials.

7. 6. 5 Security Because BSE is neither contagious nor vector borne, strict disease security measures are not necessary. Personnel should observe normal disease security measures that are standard procedure for all farm visits. The READEO's Security and Disease Prevention Officer has the responsibility for establishing biosecurity measures.

October 1998

BSE Red Book 2.1-40

7.7 Disposal Under no circumstances may BSE suspects be sent to slaughter or rendering. Notify FDA, CVM if you suspect that the carcass of a BSE-confirmed animal has moved to rendering or animal feed manufacturing. Field personel should arrange for the carcass to be transported to and examined by a qualified veterinary pathologist or field veterinary medical officer. After the pathologic examination has been completed and the necessary diagnostic specimens have been obtained, field personnel should arrange for disposal of the carcass. Before a method of disposal is selected, there are many factors that must be considered, and often other State and Federal agencies must be consulted. The environmental and legal impacts of the operation must be considered. Upon recommendation of the State or Federal agencies, VS may consider other disposal methods.

7.7.1 Incineration Incineration, although more expensive than burial, is the preferred disposal method for BSE-suspect carcasses. Federal, State, and local environmental regulations may restrict the use of this method and permits may be necessary. As soon as BSE suspects are reported to APHIS, field personnel should investigate the location and availability of incinerators of sufficient size to process a bovine carcass. Institutions likely to have incinerators include State and university diagnostic laboratories, waste contractors, large municipalities, and private industries. Ideally, the diagnostic laboratory where the pathologic examination was done will have incineration facilities. The BSE-suspect carcass disposal is APHIS' responsibility (not the diagnostic laboratory's). Field personnel should arrange for transportation and final disposal of the suspect carcass and should inform their supervisors and/or the READEO Humane and Disposal Officer of these arrangements.

Personnel should be aware that some laboratories dispose of carcasses by rendering and should specifically inquire if this is the case. CNS suspects should be incinerated or held from rendering until a diagnosis of BSE can be ruled out. Under no circumstances may BSE susuects be sent to slaughter or rendering. Notify FDA, CVM if you suspect that the carcass of a BSE-confirmed animal has moved to rendering or animal feed manufacturing.

Field personnel should be prepared to accompany the carcass from the farm of origin to the diagnostic laboratory and then to the disposal site if any doubt exists concerning the final disposal method.

7.7.2 Burial If there are no other avenues for carcass disposal, burial of BSE-suspect carcasses may be an acceptable disposal method. APHIS field personnel should inquire with environmental authorities concerning Federal, State, and local regulations that may impose restrictions on this method.

The burial site may be on the affected farm, at the diagnostic laboratory where the carcass is examined, or in a local landfill. The site should be inaccessible to animals, removed from populated areas, not used for agricultural purposes, clearly marked, and properly protected.

October 1998

BSE Red Book 2.1-41

Burial sites should also be located a sufficient distance from underground utility lines, septic systems, water wells, and surface water. Local environmental or public works officers may be helpful in locating a satisfactory site.

Field personnel should consult with their supervisors and/or the READEO Environmental Impact Officer before digging. Burial trenches are normally at least 9 feet deep with floor dimensions of 7 by 2 feet per adult bovine carcass. Carcasses should be covered with at least 6 feet of soil. This soil should not be tightly packed because gas formation may cause a tightly packed trench to crack and leak.

7.7.3 Rendering Because BSE is spread by rendered animal protein, BSE-suspect and confirmed carcasses must not be rendered, unless the rendered material is incinerated. Notify FDA, CVM if you suspect that dead BSE animals or carcasses have moved to rendering or animal feed manufacturing.

7.7.4 Other Disposal Methods The AVIC, the State animal health officials, and the READEO Director may recommend other methods of disposal to the Deputy Administer, VS, for approval (9 CFR 53.4). Options for disposal must be discussed and approved by VS, Emergency Programs staff and must comply with all State and local Environmental Protection Agency regulations.

7.8 Cleaning and Disinfecting (C&D)

Although BSE is neither contagious nor vector borne, appropriate C&D is required to prevent farm-to-farm transmission of most other infectious diseases. Field personnel must remember, however, that at the time they are requested to euthanize a BSE-suspect animal, a confirmed diagnosis of BSE will not be available. Signs compatible with BSE may be caused by numerous infectious diseases and many BSE-suspect animals will, in fact, have some other disease. Although the C&D of items such as manure, bedding, feed, stalls, halters, milking machines, and other supplies and equipment that have been in contact with BSE suspects is not specifically necessary to control BSE, C&D is still advisable to control other diseases that may be present.

7.8.1 Procedures for Cleaning and Disinfecting Premises and Items--Field personnel are not responsible for C&D of premises such as barns, stalls, and animal pens unless invasive diagnostic procedures (such as a necropsy examination or the removal of the suspect animal's brain) were performed on the premises. If possible, field personnel should avoid doing such procedures on the farm. If circumstances require that such procedures must be done on the farm, personnel should clean and disinfect the immediate area after completing the work. Vehicles--Vehicles used to transport personnel to affected premises should be kept clean, and normal precautions against the farm-to-farm spread of any disease should be observed.

October 1998

BSE Red Book 2.1-42

7,8.1.3 Carriers--Thoroughly clean trucks and trailers transporting BSE suspects. Manure and bedding may be disposed of by any environmentally accepted method such as spreading on fields or composting. After conveyances have been thoroughly cleaned, disinfectant should be sprayed on the sides and floor of the truck bed. Livestock Markets--The risk of BSE transmission at livestock markets is negligible. If a BSE suspect is found at a livestock market, it should be managed the same as if it were found at a farm. Because of the high risk of transmission of diseases other than BSE, invasive diagnostic procedures, such as a necropsy examination or removal of the suspect animal's head, should not be performed at livestock markets. Due to the recent research findings concerning maternal transmission, any pens or areas in which calving occurs should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected.

Cleaning and disinfection is not necessary to prevent the spread of BSE. However, the C&D procedures are recommended to prevent the spread of other diseases from pens or buildings where BSE suspects were held. Slaughter Plants--Becanse BSE is spread by rendered animal protein in cattle feeds, BSE suspects must not be slaughtered nor rendered. If a BSE suspect is found at a slaughter plant, it should be managed similarly to finding a suspect at a farm.

7.8.2 Approved Disinfectants Field personnel should use professional judgment in the choice of a disinfectant. Preferred disinfectants to inactivate the BSE agent include 1N sodium hydroxide solution or sodium hypochlorite solution containing 2 percent chlorine (1 hour exposure at 20 %C [68 %F]). This should be used whenever there is reason to strongly suspect that BSE is in fact the cause of the suspect animal's disease. Such reasons include previously confirmed BSE in the geographic area or signs more compatible with BSE than with any other neurologic disease.

If the suspect animal's signs are more compatible with diseases such as rabies or listeriosis, then a phenolic disinfectant such as "One Stroke" may be preferable. (Refer to appendix A Survival of BSE Agent and sec. 1.4.4.)

7. 8. 3 Precautions All disinfectants are hazardous to human beings, animals, and the environment. Label directions should be carefully read and followed. Many disinfectants, including sodium hypochlorite solution, are also corrosive and should be used with caution on metal and other corrodible materials. Thorough rinsing is necessary if corrosive disinfectants are used on metallic items.

Disinfectants, especially in concentrated form, may irritate skin, eyes, and respiratory systems. Protective equipment such as appropriate clothing, rubber boots, rubber gloves, mask and goggles should be worn during mixing and application of disinfectants. If areas of the body are exposed to a disinfectant, they should be washed thoroughly with water. Employees should notify their supervisor and their Health and Safety Officer if excessive human or animal exposure to disinfectants occurs or if there is accidental release into the environment.

October l998

BSE Red Book 2.1-43

Field personnel should use normal hygienic procedures (such as washing and disinfecting boots and removing the outer layer of clothing) when leaving the farm. Unless the disease problem is noncontagious, personnel should not travel to other livestock premises for the duration of that day.

7.9 Vector Control

Current scientific data indicate that BSE is not spread by vectors.

7.10 Disease Prevention and Philosophy

The goal of disease prevention and control is to confine the occurrence of BSE to as few herds as possible and to prevent recycling of the BSE agent in the ruminant food supply. If undiagnosed cases are rendered and included in ruminant rations, the long incubation period may allow many animals to be exposed.

Action should be taken immediately after the detection and confirmation of BSE to initiate an extensive epidemiologic investigation to determine the source and extent of the disease, to stop the spread, and to eradicate the disease.

7.10.1 Philosophy--Immediate action should be taken to prevent contamination of the animal food supply by prohibiting rendering of any infected or suspect bovine carcasses. In addition, care should be taken to monitor those animals born and raised in affected herds and to prevent their becoming a source of infection to other herds.

7.10.2 Agent Spread--Epidemiologic evidence indicates that the primary route of BSE transmission is through the feeding of contaminated meat and bone meal that has been manufactured using scrapie infected sheep carcasses or BSE infected bovine carcasses. Recent research findings suggest that maternal transmission may occur at a rate of approximately 1 percent in some species. It is believed that this route of transmission is not significant enough to maintain an epidemic. Cases of apparent maternal transmission have also been identified in captive exotic ruminants.

7.10.3 Control of Products and Conveyances--Carcasses of BSE suspects should be incinerated. Carcasses must not be rendered and incorporated in animal feed. If carcasses are transported for disposal, conveyances should be cleaned and disinfected after use with either a sodium hypochlorite solution (2 percent available chlorine) or 1 N lye (sodium hydroxide solution).

7.10.4 Control of Biologics and Drugs--Although no documented cases of BSE have resulted from the use of biologics derived from bovines, tissues from suspect or exposed animals must not be used for the production of biologics and drugs.

The agents responsible for causing the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are highly resistant to normal inactivation processes. Careful selection of source materials is the best way to secure maximum safety of ingredients or reagents of bovine origin used in the manufacture of biologics or other medicinals. Factors that should be considered are the age of the animals, exposure to the agent, and the tissue or organ from which the product is derived.

October 1998

BSE Red Book 2.1-44

7.10.5 Wild Birds, Wind and Insects---Wild birds, wind and insects are not known factors in the spread of BSE.

7.10.6 Rodents--Rodents are not known factors in the spread of BSE. 7.10.7 Hunting--Restrictions on the hunting of wild animals are not necessary to prevent BSE.

7.10.8 Exhibitions--Cancelling scheduled exhibitions is not necessary.

7.10.9 Rendering Trucks and Drivers--The carcasses from BSE suspects must not be rendered. If any rendering truck is used to transport a suspect, it should be cleaned, washed, and disinfected as above. (Refer to appendix A--Agent Survival and sec. 7.8.2--Disinfectants.)

7.10.10 Treatment--Currently there is no known treatment for BSE.

7.10.11 Prevention--Suspects and animals confirmed to have BSE must not be rendered. Producers, feed mills, and rendering establishments should adhere to U.S. State and local rendering policies and FDA regulations concerning the feeding of rendered animal protein to ruminants. Because of the possibility that some transmissible spongiform encephalopathies may be transmitted at the time of parturition, precautions should be taken to prevent exposure of healthy animal to placenta and reproductive fluids. Importation of live animals and animal products from countries with BSE or having high risk factors for BSE should be restricted based upon scientific risk assessment. Immunization--The agent that causes BSE elicits no detectable immune response in the host. Therefore, vaccination is not a viable option. There is no vaccine currently developed for BSE or other TSE's. Sanitation--Although it is unknown whether a contaminated environment plays any role in the spread of BSE, it is suggested that pens having contained BSE-infected animals be cleaned and disinfected. The disinfectants o choice are sodium hydroxide (lye) and sodium hypochlorite, in infected herds it is also advisable that all placentas be removed promptly and buried or incinerated. The calving pens also should be cleaned and disinfected.

7.10.113 Producer Defense---The most effective way to prevent an intruduction of BSE into a herd is not to feed ruminant byproducts to ruminants. As of August 4, 1997, the FDA has a ban in place which prohibits the feeding of most mammlian proteins to ruminants.

7.11 Records Maintenance in a Foreign Animal Disease Outbreak

The APHIS FEDS will be used by the READEO to record information. FEDS a computerized network designed to transmit accurate information rapidly during any emergency disease outbreak. The use of FEDS will allow the READEO to direct its attention to the minute-to-minute business of containing and eradicating the disease.

For an accurate record of the activities, all field supervisors in a READEO task force should maintain a diary. Activities and observations should be recorded in the diary when they occur. Date all documents and enter events by time and date to show a correct chronology.

Enter events as they occur in the diary as well. An accurate history is of considerable value in developing policies and plans for future disease-eradication

October 1998

BSE Red book 2.1-45

programs, and it may be important if there is litigation. A diary will be helpful for day-to-day administration of funds, personnel, and equipment. It is also useful as a later reference in preparing reports and summaries of activities.

7.11.1 Daily Reporls Submit daily reports of significant activities to the READEO Director and the VS, Emergency Programs staff Riverdale, MD. (Refer to appendix F for current telephone listings.) Include the following as part of the historical file of an outbreak:

*Maps showing premises where BSE-infected animals were found;

*Inventory of feeds and feed sources;

*Origin of BSE-suspeet and confirmed animals;

*Public information material distributed, newspaper clippings; and,

Administrative reports to support the expenditure of funds, utilization of personnel and equipment, and disposition of excess materials and equip­ment at the end of the program.

7.11.2 Distribution The VS, Emergency Programs staff will distribute reports of significant activities to all AVIC's, State cooperators, and industry cooperators at least weekly. As soon as significant events occur, Emergency Programs will inform all APHIS

will inform all APHIS headquarters units through normal reporting channels. Emergency Programs also will immediately report any significant events to the Deputy Administrator, VS, who will immediately advise the APHIS Administrator, especially of legal or politically important events. A weekly summary report of control and eradication activities will be provided to the APHIS Administrator and the Deputy Administrator, VS. See BSE Response Plan, communications section.

7.11.3 Disposition Records should be maintained until a historical account of the program has been prepared and all pertinent information has been gleaned from the records.

Furthermore, all records should be maintained if there may be legal action pending as a result of the program activities. Usually, administrative records are maintained a minimum of 3 years for audit purposes.




Sunday, April 12, 2009
BSE MAD COW TESTING USA 2009 FIGURES Month Number of Tests

Feb 2009 -- 1,891

Jan 2009 -- 4,620




Monday, May 4, 2009

Back to the Past With New TSE Testing Agricultural Research/May-June 2009


Monday, June 01, 2009

Biochemical typing of pathological prion protein in aging cattle with BSE


Sunday, June 07, 2009



Sunday, May 10, 2009

Identification and characterization of bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases diagnosed and NOT diagnosed in the United States


Sunday, December 28, 2008

MAD COW DISEASE USA DECEMBER 28, 2008 an 8 year review of a failed and flawed policy


Wednesday, August 20, 2008

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Mad Cow Disease typical and atypical strains, was there a cover-up ?


Saturday, February 28, 2009

NEW RESULTS ON IDIOPATHIC BRAINSTEM NEURONAL CHROMATOLYSIS "All of the 15 cattle tested showed that the brains had abnormally accumulated PrP" 2009 SEAC 102/2


Saturday, June 13, 2009

BSE FEED VIOLATIONS USA UPDATE From 01/01/2009 To 06/10/2009


Thursday, March 19, 2009




Saturday, May 2, 2009



Transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein resistant to classical scrapie but susceptible to sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical scrapie. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Aug; [Epub ahead of print]


Thursday, April 9, 2009

Docket No. FDA2002N0031 (formerly Docket No. 2002N0273) RIN 0910AF46 Substances Prohibited From Use in Animal Food or Feed; Final Rule: Proposed



Sunday, April 12, 2009
r-calf and the USA mad cow problem, don't look, don't find, and then blame Canada



Sunday, May 10, 2009

Meeting of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Committee On June 12, 2009 (Singeltary submission)


Saturday, June 13, 2009

Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States 2003 revisited 2009



Transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein resistant to classical scrapie but susceptible to sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical scrapie. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Aug; [Epub ahead of print]


your only fooling yourselves with this stupid ukbsenvcjd only theory, and the BSE methology of the OIE. most any coutnry that went by those same OIE BSE guidelines all went down with BSE.

THE OIE has now shown they are nothing more than a National Trading Brokerage for all strains of animal TSE.

AS i said before, OIE should hang up there jock strap now, since it appears they will buckle every time a country makes some political hay about trade protocol, commodities and futures. IF they are not going to be science based, they should do everyone a favor and dissolve there organization. ...


see full text ;

Docket APHIS-2006-0026 Docket Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Animal Identification and Importation of Commodities Docket Type Rulemaking Document APHIS-2006-0026-0001 Document Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions, Identification of Ruminants and Processing and Importation of Commodities Public Submission APHIS-2006-0026-0012 Public Submission Title Comment from Terry S Singletary


Docket APHIS-2006-0041 Docket Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions; Importation of Live Bovines and Products Derived from Bovines Commodities Docket Type Rulemaking Document APHIS-2006-0041-0001 Document Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions; Importation of Live Bovines and Products Derived From Bovines Public Submission APHIS-2006-0041-0028 Public Submission Title Comment from Terry S Singletary


THE USA is in a most unique situation, one of unknown circumstances with human and animal TSE. THE USA has the most documented TSE in different species to date, with substrains growing in those species (BSE/BASE in cattle and CWD in deer and elk, there is evidence here with different strains), and we know that sheep scrapie has over 20 strains of the typical scrapie with atypical scrapie documented and also BSE is very likely to have passed to sheep. all of which have been rendered and fed back to animals for human and animal consumption, a frightening scenario. WE do not know the outcome, and to play with human life around the globe with the very likely TSE tainted products from the USA, in my opinion is like playing Russian roulette, of long duration, with potential long and enduring consequences, of which once done, cannot be undone. These are the facts as I have come to know through daily and extensive research of TSE over 9 years, since 12/14/97. I do not pretend to have all the answers, but i do know to continue to believe in the ukbsenvcjd only theory of transmission to humans of only this one strain from only this one TSE from only this one part of the globe, will only lead to further failures, and needless exposure to humans from all strains of TSE, and possibly many more needless deaths from TSE via a multitude of proven routes and sources via many studies with primates and rodents and other species.

MY personal belief, since you ask, is that not only the Canadian border, but the USA border, and the Mexican border should be sealed up tighter than a drum for exporting there TSE tainted products, until a validated, 100% sensitive test is available, and all animals for human and animal consumption are tested. all we are doing is the exact same thing the UK did with there mad cow poisoning when they exported it all over the globe, all the while knowing what they were doing. this BSE MRR policy is nothing more than a legal tool to do just exactly what the UK did, thanks to the OIE and GW, it's legal now. and they executed Saddam for poisoning ???

go figure. ...


Docket APHIS-2006-0041 Docket Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions; Importation of Live Bovines and Products Derived from Bovines Commodities Docket Type Rulemaking Document APHIS-2006-0041-0001 Document Title Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions; Importation of Live Bovines and Products Derived From Bovines Public Submission APHIS-2006-0041-0028.1 Public Submission Title Attachment to Singletary comment

January 28, 2007

Greetings APHIS,

I would kindly like to submit the following to ;



Monday, June 01, 2009
Biochemical typing of pathological prion protein in aging cattle with BSE


O.K. confusious asks, IF all these new atypical BSEs i.e. new strains of mad cow disease is just an 'OLD COW PRION DISEASE', why then can not the 'old human prion disease' such as the sporadic CJD, be from an 'old cow prion disease', same as the nvCJD 'young people mad cow disease' (which also happens in 74 year old), but why cannot the 'old cow prion diseases', i.e. l-BSE, h-BSE, and ibncBSE, cause the 'old people prion disease', which looks like sporadic CJD. seems that is what some of the pathology is showing ???

OH, that probably makes too much sense, and that the only answer could be that it's all just a happenstance of bad luck and or a spontaneous event, that just happens out of the clear blue sky $$$



Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

P.O. Box 42

Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

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